HIV or the human immunodeficiency virus is a retroviral specialist that cause the immune system of the body debilitate and lead to cause AIDS. It is presently treatable. Research is being led everywhere throughout the world to define a focused on medication treatment for fighting this life-threatening disease. No vaccine is accessible, which renders the total populace very vulnerable to get the infection.
HIV infection spreads from an infected person through contact with certain organic fluids like blood and semen. Spread starting with one person then onto the next is called transmission of HIV. Mother to child transmission, for example, perinatal transmission is also normal. Healthcare and hospital staff are at extraordinary risk of occupational transmission. Different reasons for transmission incorporate sharing intravenous medication equipment, needle prick injury, organ transplantation, and artificial insemination. Since vaccination and focused on medication treatment for reduction are not available, prevention strategies play a significant role in controlling the spread of infection.
A three-level prevention technique is implemented for HIV infection.
- Primary prevention- activities that emphasis on prevention of uninfected people being infected.
- Secondary prevention- Aimed at the arrangement of legitimate social insurance and conduct offices for HIV tainted individuals like the way of life changes, welfare rights guidance, hostile to separation measures.
- Tertiary prevention- Aimed at limiting the manifestations of an infected people; incorporates the provision of prophylactic medications and complementary therapies.
The risk avoidance approach for transmission of HIV infection incorporates certain estimates like rehearsing mutual monogamy and delayed sexual activity in the young populace. Sheltered and proper use of syringes and needles is prompted. Unnecessary blood transfusions ought to be totally avoided. Routine screening of HIV antibody ought to be finished.
Risk decrease approach propagates the compulsory use of condoms during sex. Sexually transmitted disease ought to be blessed to avoid the risk of transmitting infection. Sterile syringes ought to be used. If a blood transfusion is essential, then blood transfused ought to be assessed well to satisfy the quality standards.
- If HIV infection is suspected, anti-retroviral medication treatment ought to be begun.
- The main universally approved strategy for HIV transmission during sexual activity is the use of condoms.
- Pharmaceutical techniques for prevention and treatment include antibiotic medication treatment for a sexually transmitted disease, anti-retroviral drugs for infected people, pre and post-exposure prophylaxis and use of low space dead syringes.
- Pre-exposure prophylaxis ( PrEP ) is prompted for people who are at a higher than normal risk of getting the infection.
- Medication treatment comprising a combination of Tenofovir and Emtricitabine is prescribed, one every day.
- Visit the doctor at ordinary interims and routine screening is finished. Post-exposure prophylaxis is viewed as effective if the treatment is begun inside an hour of exposure, to effectively decrease the risk of seroconversion. A medication combination of Emtricitabine, Tenofovir, and Raltegravir is given.
- Social activities are undertaken to spread awareness and educate people regarding AIDS. Conduct change and acceptance of social message are important to profit by social activities. Sex instruction, LGBT sex training, and awareness, safe injection use programs, needle trade programs, safe sex practice education are some social strategies implemented.
Prevention of transmission of HIV from mothers to baby includes anti-retroviral sedate treatment during pregnancy and post-birth in the newborn baby. Breastfeeding is avoided and bottle feeding is advised.